2008年7月18日 星期五

[Article]Classification, nomenclature and identification of lime swallowtail butterflies: a post-cladistic analysis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

Systematics and Biodiversity (2008), 6:175-203 Cambridge University Press
Copyright © The Natural History Museum 2008

Research Article

Classification, nomenclature and identification of lime swallowtail butterflies: a post-cladistic analysis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

Campbell R. Smitha1 c1 and Richard I. Vane-Wrighta1a2
a1 Department of Entomology, the Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK
a2 Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, Department of Anthropology, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NR, UK
Article author query
smith cr PubMed Google Scholar
vane-wright ri PubMed Google Scholar


The taxonomy of the five species of ‘lime swallowtails’ of the Papilio demoleus group (P. demoleus, P. demodocus, P. erithonioides, P. grosesmithi, and P. morondavana) is re-examined. Sixty morphological characters are described, scored and illustrated based on features of the wings, antennae, and male and female genitalia. The results of cladistic analyses of these data are described and discussed in the light of a previous collaborative study that combined this morphological data set with DNA sequence data. While it is confirmed that the lime swallowtails form a monophyletic group, the internal relationships of the group, and the relationships of the group with other members of the genus, have yet to be established with any certainty. This implies that the current subgeneric classification of Papilio must be considered highly provisional. Dichotomous keys to the species and subspecies based on adults, together with a synonymic checklist, are presented. Implications of the current, possibly anthropogenic spread of two subspecies, P. d. demoleus and P. d. malayanus, are discussed. The nominal taxa P. demoleus flavosignatus Heydemann and P. demoleus libanius Fruhstorfer are both formally synonymised with P. demoleus demoleus (synn. nov.). Five on-line appendices accompany the paper. Appendix I gives full nomenclatural information, including diagnoses, synonyms and type data, for each species and subspecies. Lectotypes are designated here for 6 of the 20 nominal species-group taxa included in the lime swallowtails: Papilio morondavana Grose-Smith, P. grosesmithi Rothschild, P. erithonioides Grose-Smith, P. erithonius malayanus Wallace, P. demoleus novoguineensis Rothschild, and P. demoleus pictus Fruhstorfer. Type material or putative type material is located for the remaining nominal taxa, with the exception of P. erithoniusP. epius Fabricius, P. demoleus flovosignatus Heydemann and P. sthenelus Macleay. Appendix II presents a history of the application and misapplication of the names Papilio demodocus and Papilio demoleus, respectively, to the common afrotropical and oriental pest species. Appendix III summarises known distribution and natural history of the species and subspecies. The male and female genitalia of the various out-group species, as examined during this study, are described in Appendix IV. Appendix V provides an index to the principal entries for lime swallowtail taxa, including synonyms and infrasubspecific names. The five on-line appendices are completed by a comprehensive bibliography covering the entire work.

Key Words: higher-classification; species; subspecies; lectotype designations; type material; new synonymy; Papilio demoleus; P. demodocus; P. erithonioides; P. grosesmithi; P. morondavana; keys; distribution; natural history


c1 Corresponding author. Email: crs@nhm.ac.uk

2008年7月16日 星期三


赤腳踩死毛毛蟲 加女子10天後死亡 2008-07-16

加拿大一組醫師,在加拿大醫藥協會期刊中刊登出這名女子去年因赤腳踩死毛毛蟲大量出血死亡的案例,希望能引起醫學界注意。 根據他們的描述,這名女子當時踩死毛毛蟲時,立刻感覺腳底有灼熱和劇痛,之後蔓延到大腿。但由於腳痛和頭痛在之後的12小時內逐漸減輕,她因此並沒有再去醫院看醫生。 但當她回到加拿大後,又感到不適,才再去就醫。 醫生們診斷後認為跟毛毛蟲的毒液有關。緊急安排從南美洲運送血清來拯救中毒的女子,但血清48小時後才送達,中毒女子卻已經不幸身亡。 驗屍結果顯示,這名女子死於多重器官衰竭。 加一婦女因赤腳踩毛毛蟲中毒身亡

加拿大亞伯達省愛民頓市一組醫師,今天在加拿大醫藥協會期刊中刊登一篇有關一名亞伯達省婦女因赤腳踩死毛毛蟲大量出血死亡的案例,希望能引起醫界人士注意。 死亡婦女年二十二歲,去年赴秘魯東北部旅遊。她在旅遊時,曾赤腳踩死五隻毛毛蟲。結果十天後即毒發身亡。 期刊文章指出,死亡婦女當時踩死毛毛蟲時,立刻感覺腳底有灼熱似的劇痛,之後蔓延至大腿部位。該名婦女腳底的疼痛在走路時尤為劇烈。該名婦女的足痛及隨後併發的頭痛在之後的十二小時內逐漸減輕,她因此並未去醫療。 但當她回到加拿大後,又感不適,於是到愛民頓市亞伯達大學附屬醫院治療。醫生發現她腿部多處出現菸紫。 醫生們在網上資料庫搜尋後,發現這名婦女的症狀似乎與毛毛蟲的毒液有關。毛毛蟲釋放出的毒液可以造成人類大量出血。亞伯達大學附屬醫院醫師確定婦女病因後,立刻詢問巴西的醫生,徵詢他們的意見。 加拿大醫生最後安排從南美洲運血清至愛民頓,拯救中毒的婦女,但血清四十八小時後才抵達愛民頓,中毒婦女已不幸身亡。

註: 根據加拿大Alberta大學的研究報告, 該毛毛蟲應該是天蠶蛾科Lonomia obliqua的幼蟲, 該種幼蟲所造成之過敏可引發出血性腎衰竭.

2008年7月11日 星期五

[Article]Seven new species and a checklist of the genus Thecobathra Meyrick from China (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

Zootaxa 1821: 13-24 (11 Jul. 2008) 4 plates; 17 references Accepted: 11 Jun. 2008
Seven new species and a checklist of the genus Thecobathra Meyrick from China (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)
Ximei Fan, Qing Jin & Houhun Li (P.R. China)

Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free | Full article (PDF; 320KB)

此文描述兩種台灣產小白巢蛾屬的新種, 分別為毛瓣小白巢蛾Thecobathra basilobata以及裸瓣小白巢蛾T. partinuda. 兩者之模式產地接為台中八仙山.

2008年7月8日 星期二

[Article] The genus Ashinaga Matsumura, 1929 and its position in the classification of the gelechioid moths

The genus Ashinaga Matsumura, 1929 and its position in the classification of the gelechioid moths (Lepidoptera, Gelechiiformes)

A. L. Lvovsky1 Contact Information

(1) Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia

Received: 15 June 2007 Published online: 10 April 2008

Abstract Ashinaga Matsumura, 1929 is most closely related to Lactistica Meyrick, 1907. The only difference between these genera is the presence of long scales on the male antennae in AshinagaLactistica. The genus name Aeolarcha Meyrick, 1931 is considered as a junior synonym of Ashinaga Matsumura, 1929. This genus is more closely related to the family Oecophoridae, and not to Stathmopodidae. The latter taxon is considered a distinct family. The synonymy of Oecophoridae and Ashinagidae is substantiated.
© A.L. Lvovsky, 2008, published in Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 2008, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 147–151.


1. Gaede, M., “Oecophoridae,” in Lepidopterorum catalogus, Ed. by Bryk, F. (s’-Gravenhage, 1939), Pars. 92, pp. 209–476.
2. Hodges, R.W., “The Gelechioidea,” in Handbook of Zoology. Vol. 4. Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 35. Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, Ed. by Kristensen, N.P. (Berlin, New York, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 131–158.
3. Kuznetzov, V.I. and Stekol’nikov, A.A., New Approaches to the Classification of Lepidoptera of the World Fauna (on the Basis of the Functional Morphology of the Abdomen) (Nauka, St. Petersburg, 2001) [in Russian].
4. Leraut, P.J., “Redefinition de certains taxa du groupefamile appartenant aux Gelechioidea (Lep.),” Entomol. Gallica, 3(3), 129–138 [1992 (1993)].
5. Lvovsky, A.L., “Broad-winged Moths (Lepidoptera, Oecophoridae sensu lato) of the Palaearctic Region; their Taxonomy, Distribution, and Biology,” Chteniya pamyati N.A. Kholodkovskogo 55(2), 1–70 (2002).
6. Matsumura, S., “A New Family, a New Genus, and a New Species of the Moth from Formosa,” Insecta Matsum. 3(3), 129–138 (1929).
7. Meyrick, E., “Nachtrag. In Dritter Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Pyraliden von Kwanhsien und Mokanshan (China),” Bull. Sect. Scient. Acad. Roumaine, 14(9–10), 211–212 (1931).
8. Minet, J., “Remaniement partiel de la classification des Gelechioidea, essentiellement en fonction de caractères pré-imaginaux (Lepidoptera, Ditrysia),” Alexanor, 16(3–4), 239–255 [1989 (1990)].
9. Nye, I.W.B. and Fletcher, D.S., The Generic Names of the Moths of the World. Vol. 6. Microlepidoptera (London, 1996).
10. Sinev, S.Yu., “To the Classification and Phylogeny of Gelechioid Moths (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea s. l.),” Entomol. Obozr., 71(1), 143–159 (1992).

這篇文章最大的問題就是完全忽略近幾年有關Gelechioidea親緣關係的討論與文章, 關在自己國家閉門造車對著自己其實不熟的其它國家產生物類群發表分類學的議論. 雖然此文章並未動搖Ashinaga屬的有效性, 然而這篇文章對於織蛾與展足蛾的觀點是不足採信的.

2008年7月7日 星期一

[Article]Revision of Holarctic Teleiodini (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Zootaxa 1818: 1-55 (7 Jul. 2008) 12 plates; 217 references Accepted: 10 Jun. 2008
Revision of Holarctic Teleiodini (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
Sangmi Lee & Richard L. Brown (USA)

Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free | Full article (PDF; 940KB)
subscription required

2008年7月1日 星期二

[Article]Genomic outposts serve the phylogenomic pioneers: designing novel nuclear markers for genomic DNA extractions of Lepidoptera


Wahlberg, N.
, & Wheat, C. W. 2008: Genomic outposts serve the phylogenomic pioneers: designing novel nuclear markers for genomic DNA extractions of Lepidoptera. Systematic Biology 57: 231-242. pdf, for list of primers see Molecular Methods or download Electronic Appendices.

[New Book]Olethreutine Moths of the Midwestern United States


Olethreutine Moths of the Midwestern United States

Tortricid.net would like to announce the publication of a new book designed to aid in the study and identification of olethreutine moths occuring in the Midwestern United States. Authored by Todd M. Gilligan, Donald J. Wright, and Loran D. Gibson, the book is being published by the Ohio Biological Survey and provides the following:

  • Treatment of 306 species (approximately 1/3 of the Nearctic Olethreutinae)
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