2009年12月27日 星期日

寄主植物親緣關係與生長形式對廣食性的黃鉤蛺蝶有基因表現上的影響

文獻來源:HM Heidel-Fischer, D Freitak, N Janz, L Söderlind, H Vogel, S Nylin. 2009. Phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form influence gene expression of the polyphagous comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album). BMC Genomics 10:506. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-506

關於限制植食性昆蟲食性範圍的機制目前尚未研究透徹,但是針對影響他們的機制與選汰力量之研究能使人們更了解較大尺度的生態交互作用。目前已知植物的化學防禦物質可影響植食性昆蟲的食性範圍,而植物的化學防禦物質則受植物親緣關係之影響、植物的生長形式亦會影響植物的防禦策略(首先是由Feeny, P.在1976年所提出的"plant apparency"假說)。在本研究中,作者希望藉由檢測取食三種不同寄主植物的幼蟲之基因表現,以分析出黃鉤蛺蝶(Polygonia c-album)能取食多樣化的植物之分子層次基礎,此三種植物為近緣關係(Urtica dioica and Ulmus glabra- 皆為蕁麻目)或有相同生長形式 (Salix caprea and Ulmus glabra -皆為樹木)。
作者在取食不同植物後的黃鉤蛺蝶身上總計找到120個具有差異表現的基因,其中55個位於中腸、65個位於幼蟲身體的其他部位。27個選取的測試基因中有14個 (10 in 中腸 and 4 in 身體其他部位)的表現樣式可以以獨立方法進行確認。對幼蟲中腸基因表現進行配對的相似性比較顯示,無論是在近緣的植物或具有相同生長形式的植物之間,均具有較高的相似性。相反地,幼蟲身體其他部位的基因與植物的類別間則無相對應的樣式。然而在取食不同寄主植物的幼蟲中腸中並未找到不同的解毒酵素以進行不同的調節。作者的研究資料顯示基因表現對取食不同寄主植物的反應是很複雜的,雖然每種植物需要幼蟲獨特的基因調節,但是寄主植物間親緣關係與寄主植物生長形式看來亦能影響廣食性的黃鉤蛺蝶之基因表現,此與蝶類寄主植物利用的親緣關係研究結果一致。

Background
The mechanisms that shape the host plant range of herbivorous insect are to date not well understood but knowledge of these mechanisms and the selective forces that influence them can expand our understanding of the larger ecological interaction. Nevertheless, it is well established that chemical defenses of plants influence the host range of herbivorous insects. While host plant chemistry is influenced by phylogeny, also the growth forms of plants appear to influence the plant defense strategies as first postulated by Feeny (the "plant apparency" hypothesis). In the present study we aim to investigate the molecular basis of the diverse host plant range of the comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album) by testing differential gene expression in the caterpillars on three host plants that are either closely related or share the same growth form.
Results
In total 120 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in P. c-album after feeding on different host plants, 55 of them in the midgut and 65 in the restbody of the caterpillars. Expression patterns could be confirmed with an independent method for 14 of 27 tested genes. Pairwise similarities in upregulation in the midgut of the caterpillars were higher between plants that shared either growth form or were phylogenetically related. No known detoxifying enzymes were found to be differently regulated in the midgut after feeding on different host plants.
Conclusion
Our data suggest a complex picture of gene expression in response to host plant feeding. While each plant requires a unique gene regulation in the caterpillar, both phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form appear to influence the expression profile of the polyphagous comma butterfly, in agreement with phylogenetic studies of host plant utilization in butterflies.

2009年12月15日 星期二

溫帶與亞熱帶亞洲產舞毒蛾之分類檢討, 以及中國, 台灣與日本產三個新種之描述

文獻來源: Pogue, MG, and Schaefer, PW. 2007. A review of selected species of Lymantria Hübner [1819] including three new species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Lymantriinae). United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Pub. No. FHTET-2006-07. 223 pp. [全文下載]

Abstract
The genus Lymantria Hübner [1819] contains some of the most destructive forest pests in the world. Potential invasive species of Lymantria from temperate and subtropical Asia are a threat to the forests of North America. Treated here are 31 species and three subspecies of Lymantria that, if accidentally introduced into North America, could result in severe damage to native forests and economic losses. Three species are described as new: Lymantria (Porthetria) brunneoloma, n. sp. from China, Lymantria (Lymantria) pulverea, n. sp. from Taiwan, and Lymantria (Nyctria) flavida, n. sp. from Okinawa, Japan. Lymantria (Porthetria) dispar asiatica Vnukovskij, revised status, is considered a valid subspecies. Lymantria (Porthetria) umbrosa (Butler), revised status, is considered a valid species and a lectotype was designated to establish nomenclatural stability. Lymantria (Porthetria) albescens Hori and Umeno and Lymantria (Porthetria) postalba Inoue, revised status, are considered valid species. Lymantria (Porthetria) xylina nobunaga Nagano, revised synonymy, is considered a synonym of L. (Porthetria) xylina Swinhoe. Lymantria (Porthetria) lunata curvifera (Walker) is a new synonym of Lymantria (Porthetria) lunata (Stoll). The following are treated as new synonymies of Lymantria (Porthetria) brotea (Stoll): Lymantria (Porthetria) brotea lepcha (Moore) and Lymantria (Porthetria) brotea rudloffii Schintlmeister. Lymantria minomonis okinawaensis Kishida is a revised synonym of Lymantria (Lymantria) minomonis Matsumura. Lymantria (Lymantria) concolor septentrionalis Schintlmeister is a new synonym of Lymantria (Lymantria) concolor Walker. Lymantria (Lymantria) sinica albida Schintlmeister is a new synonym of Lymantria (Lymantria) sinica Moore. Lymantria aurora Butler is a revised synonym of Lymantria (Nyctria) mathura Moore. The following are considered new synonymies of Lymantria (Collentria) grisea Moore: Lymantria servula Collenette, Lymantria grisea servula Collenette. Lymantria (Spinotria) bantaizana Matsumura, revised status, is considered a valid species. Descriptions, distributions, and illustrations of adults are included. Larvae of 13 species and two subspecies are described and illustrated. Sections provide information on oviposition, biology and behavior, food plants, pheromonal communication, flight and pheromone periodicity, and seasonality.

2009年12月13日 星期日

中國廣東產蕈蛾科隱斑穀蛾屬之新種

文獻來源: Huang GH, Hirowatari T, Wang M. 2009. The genus Crypsithyris Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) in Guangdong Province, China, with comments on the biology and the description of a new species. Zootaxa 2310: 51-58.

Abstract
Species of the genus Crypsithyris Meyrick, 1907 in Guangdong Province, South China are reviewed. Crypsithyris nanlingensis Huang, Hirowatari & Wang, sp. nov., is described and illustrated, and C. sp. and C. japonica Petersen & Gaedike, 1993, which are new records for China, also are described and illustrated. Biological notes for C. japonica and C. sp. are provided, and a key to the Crypsithyris of South China is presented.

延伸閱讀:
Diakonoff A. 1951. Notes on cave-dwelling Microlepidoptera with description of a new genus and species from east Java (Family Oinophilidae). Zoologische Mededelingen 11(13): 129-137. [全文下載]
Gaedike R. 2009. Some new and interesting "Microlepidoptera" from the collection of the Zoologiches Forschungmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK), Bonn (Lepidoptera: Tineidae, Epermeniidae, Acrolepiidae, Douglasiidae). Bonner zoologische Betraege 56(2007)(1/2): 101-106.
[全文下載]
Meyrick E. 1912-1937. Exotic Microlepidoptera v.1-5. [全文下載]
Petersen G, Gaedike R. 1993. Tineiden aus China und Japan aus der Hoene-Sammlung des Museum Koenig (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Bonner zoologische Betraege 44(3/4): 241-250. [全文下載]
Xiao YK, Li HH 2005. A systematic study on the genus Crypsithyris Meyrick, 1907 from China (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterologia 33(129): 17-23. [全文下載]

2009年12月11日 星期五

全球木蛾科Epichostis屬之名錄與中國產11個新種的記述

文獻來源: Yuan GX, Wang SX. 2009. Checklist of the genus Epichostis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae) of the world, with descriptions of 11 new species from China. Journal of Natural History 2009(35&36): 2141-2165.

Abstract
A worldwide checklist of 23 Epichostis species is given. Twelve species are described from China, 11 of which are new to science: E. wufengensis sp. nov., E. magnimacularis sp. nov., E. proximitympanias sp. nov., E. termitruncatula sp. nov., E. termiprotrusa sp. nov., E. wenxianica sp. nov., E. hamatilis sp. nov., E. jiangkouensis sp. nov., E. setilata sp. nov., E. deltata sp. nov. and E. subrotunda sp. nov. Based on the fore wing pattern and shape, and on the male genitalia, these species are divided into three species groups: tympanias group, leptorthra group and antigama group. The generic characters are emended by giving descriptions of the male and female genitalia for the first time. Images of the adults and the genital structures are provided, along with a key to the known Chinese species.

2009年12月10日 星期四

以形態資訊重建巢蛾科親緣關係顯示巢蛾起源於澳洲並經由東方區與非洲進入西歐

文獻來源: Ulenberg SA. 2009. Phylogeny of the Yponomeuta species (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) and the history of their host plant associations. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 152(2): 187-207.

Abstract
This study presents the results of cladistic analyses of the morphology of 1) the subfamilies of the Yponomeutidae, 2) the genera of the Yponomeutinae, and 3) the species of Yponomeuta Latreille, 1796. The sequential steps in the evolution of the host plant associations, the presumed key factor in the processes of speciation within Yponomeuta, as extrapolated from the cladograms are discussed. The hypothesis that the present-day host plant associations evolved from an ancestral relation with Celastraceae through speciation in allopatry mostly on Euonymus is supported by the underlying study. The biogeographical patterns suggest speciation through dispersion from Australia, the Oriental region, Africa to western Europe.

圖片連結: Wikipedia (photo credit: NP Holmes)

[新書]河南昆蟲誌 鱗翅目 螟蛾總科

[書名] 河南昆蟲誌 鱗翅目 螟蛾總科
[作者] 李後魂 任應黨
[年代] 2009
[出版] 科學出版社, 北京
[規格] 440 頁 (含19彩色圖版+77黑白圖版)
[內容簡介] 介紹了國際螟蛾總科最新分類系統,根據實際標本記述河南螟蛾總科昆蟲2科12亞科146屬277種。首次報導了黑基櫛角斑螟Ceroprepesa tribasilaris和雙斑暗斑螟Euzophera albipunctella的雄性個體,建立1個新異名(雙突槌須斑螟Trisides bisignata Walker,1863 = Apomyelois fasciatella Inoue,1982nov.syn.)和2個新組合黃斑鐮翅野螟Circobotys butleri(South,1901)comb.nov.,黃絨野螟Crocidophora auratalis (Warren, 1895) comb. nov.

2009年12月9日 星期三

專食性幼蟲無法在3cm距離外分辨前方植物能否下嚥

圖片來源:Paul J. Thompson
文獻來源:P Bierzychudek, KA Warner, A Mchugh, L Thomas. 2009. Testing the host-finding ability of a monophagous caterpillar in the field. Ecological Entomology 34:632–637. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2009.01112.x

1.目前關於直接觀察專一植食性昆蟲在未受損的寄主植物與非寄主植物間移動之能力的研究相對較少,然而相關的資訊可提供作為制定保育政策時的重要參考。
2.作者選用瀕危的奧勒岡銀點蝴蝶Speyeria zerene hippolyta (Edwards)置於直徑10cm的透明容器中研究,將幼蟲置於容器中央,周圍擺放三株該幼蟲的寄主植物-鉤距堇菜(Viola adunca)與三株均為不同種類的非寄主植物,中間以裸露地區隔。在第二個試驗中,作者將二齡幼蟲放在間隔3–6 cm的寄主植物與非寄主植物之間,藉此觀察幼蟲選擇走向寄主植物的頻率是否比較高。
3.實驗結果發現幼蟲走向植物的傾向確實顯著高於隨機移動,然而,走向其寄主植物的頻率並沒有顯著高於非寄主植物,而是純粹基於植物的接近程度。
4.綜合以上實驗結果,奧勒岡銀點蝴蝶幼蟲可以在10cm遠處分辨植被與裸露地,但目前沒有證據顯示他們可以在3cm的距離辨認前方植物是否為其寄主植物。

Abstract.
1. Relatively few studies of the host-finding ability of specialised, phytophagous insects involve direct observations of individual insects moving among intact hosts and non-hosts. Information from such studies can inform the design of restoration programmes for species of conservation concern.

2. The movement of caterpillars of the threatened Oregon silverspot butterfly, Speyeria zerene hippolyta (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) was studied in the field in cleared arenas with 10 cm radii. Caterpillars were placed in the centre,
surrounded by three individuals of their host, Viola adunca, and three different nonhost individuals, separated by bare ground. In a second experiment, second instars were placed between a host and a non-host, 3–6 cm away. Caterpillars were observed to determine if they walked to their host more often than expected by chance.
3. Caterpillars walked to vegetation significantly more often than expected by chance. They did not, however, reach their hosts more often than expected, based on plant availability.
4. It is concluded that S. z. hippolyta caterpillars can distinguish vegetation from bare ground from 10 cm away. There is no evidence that they can distinguish their host plant from other herbaceous species at distances of 3 cm.

Key words. Conservation, experiment, host plant, Lepidoptera, movement behaviour, reactive distance, Speyeria zerene hippolyta.

旭日穀蛾幼生期之首次報導以及在中國華南的首次記錄

superlink: http://x4.net.vnu.edu.tw/~tbgweb/cgi-bin/attachment.cgi?forum=25&topic=1424&postno=2&type=.jpg

文獻來源: Huang GJ, Hirowatari T, Wang M. 2009. Morphological Characters of Coryptilum rutilellum (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), with Reference to Its Affinity of the Genus Coryptilum Zeller. Entomological News 120(3): 253-259.


Abstract
Morphological characters of the conspicuous tineid species Coryptilum retilellum (Walker, 1869) are described. The wing venation and male and female genitalia of the species are illustrated and described for the first time. Although the phylogenetic position of the genus Coryptilum Zeller, 1839 has not been established, it is inferred to be monophyletic with Tineovertex Moriuti, 1982 and Ischnuridia Sauber, 1902 based on male and female genital morphology. Distributional data of the species are also presented. The genus Coryptilum (C. retilellum) is recorded from South China for the first time.

圖片連結: 塔內植物園 (photo credit: gray)

2009年12月5日 星期六

廣食性幼蟲若把老葉新葉混著吃比較頭好壯壯

圖片來源:SwampThings文獻來源:R Johns, DT Quiring, R Lapointe, CJ Lucatotti. 2009. Foliage-age mixing within balsam fir increases the fitness of a generalist caterpillar. Ecological Entomology 34(5): 624-631. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2009.01110.x
  1. 作者利用野外操作實驗評估一種極度廣食性的植食性幼蟲-白斑毒蛾(Orygia leucostigma Smith)對植物-膠樅(Abies balsamea (L.) Mill)枝葉年齡的偏好表現情形。
  2. 田野調查指出早齡幼蟲幾乎只取食年輕的枝葉(近一年生長者),而熟齡幼蟲則同時取食年輕和成熟的枝葉(如一年、兩年)。
  3. 實驗中發現早齡幼蟲中取食幼嫩(近期或一年)枝葉者具有最高的存活率,但在取時老熟枝葉的組別中存活率則顯下降。相反地,熟齡幼蟲具有最高存活率的組別出現在能夠取食到所有年紀的枝葉者,而在熟齡幼蟲時期取食年輕枝葉者卻具有最高的生殖潛力。
  4. 整體而言,能夠取食到所有年紀階層植物的幼蟲,其適應度比僅能取得一個年齡層枝葉的幼蟲高出 32–65% 。
  5. 以上結果同時支持“互補飲食假說”和“個體發生學假說”。前者說明混合不同年齡層枝葉的食物能增加養分的攝取且/或稀釋掉有害的植物次級代謝物,而後者則歸因於昆蟲幼期在成長發育過程中隊營養需求之改變與/或對植物防禦的容忍度。
Abstract.
  1. Manipulative field studies were carried out to evaluate the foliage age preference–performance relationship for an extreme generalist herbivore, the whitemarked tussock moth (Orygia leucostigma Smith) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), within balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill].
  2. Field surveys indicated that early instar caterpillars fed almost exclusively on young (i.e. current-year) foliage, whereas late instars caterpillars fed on both young and mature (i.e. 1- and 2-year-old) foliage.
  3. Survival of early instar caterpillars was highest in treatments where current-year and/or 1-year old foliage were available, but decreased significantly on older foliage. In contrast, late instar caterpillars had the highest survival when allowed to feed on all age classes of foliage, whereas potential fecundity was highest for late instars that fed on young foliage.
  4. Overall, caterpillars had 32–65% higher fitness when able to feed on all rather than just one age class of foliage.
  5. These results support both the ‘complementary diet’ hypothesis, which states that dietary mixing of different-aged foliage can increase nutrient uptake and/or dilute harmful secondary plant chemicals, and the ‘ontogeny’ hypothesis, which attributes changes in diet to changes in the nutritional needs and/or tolerance to plant defences of juvenile insects as they develop.
Key words. Foliage quality, foraging behaviour, intra-tree heterogeneity, polyphagy, whitemarked tussock moth.

2009年11月24日 星期二

傳粉者和植食者是否會造成花部化學特徵選汰上的衝突?

文獻來源:A Kessler & R Halitschke. 2009. Testing the potential for conflicting selection on floral chemical traits by pollinators and herbivores: predictions and case study. Functional Ecology 23: 901–912. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2009.01639.x

摘要
1.透過寄主植物在演化和行為上的反應,傳粉者和植食者能有許多種交互作用的方式。
2.由於傳粉者和植食者皆消費植物並依賴植物產生的營養和次級代謝物、以及利用植物訊息,植物化學應該是他們之間最主要的交互作用媒介。
3.作者建立了傳粉者和植食者之間以植物為媒介者的概念架構。作者著重在植物化學、尤其是植物揮發物,目標則在於統整植物防禦和傳粉的假說。作者提出對雙方演化結局的預測-傳粉者和植食者衝突的演化壓力起因於受植物化學之限制。
4.作者進一步提出植物為避免在“吸引傳粉者”與“抵禦植食者”之間產生衝突,能夠透過在特定組織調節對傳粉者的化學回饋、和由植食者引發的花部化學和形態之假說。
5.最後,作者利用野生種馬鈴薯(Solanum peruvianum)測試他們所預測的各個觀點,以闡述植物化學中“組織專一性”和“植食者誘導”之差異的多樣性,可能影響傳粉者與植食者之行為和植物的適應度。

SUMMARY
1. There are myriad ways in which pollinators and herbivores can interact via the evolutionary and behavioural responses of their host plants.
2. Given that both herbivores and pollinators consume and are dependent upon plant-derived nutrients and secondary metabolites, and utilize plant signals, plant chemistry should be one of the major factors mediating these interactions.
3. Here we build upon a conceptual framework for understanding plant-mediated interactions of pollinators and herbivores.
We focus on plant chemistry, in particular plant volatiles and aim to unify hypotheses for plant defence and pollination. We make predictions for the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions by hypothesizing that conflicting selection pressures from herbivores and pollinators arise from the constraints imposed by plant chemistry.
4. We further hypothesize that plants could avoid conflicts between pollinator attraction and herbivore defence through tissue-specific regulation of pollinator reward chemistry, as well as herbivore-induced changes in flower chemistry and morphology.
5. Finally, we test aspects of our predictions in a case study using a wild tomato species, Solanum peruvianum, to illustrate the diversity of tissue-specific and herbivore-induced differences in plant chemistry that could influence herbivore and pollinator behaviour, and plant fitness.

Key-words: plant–insect interactions, coevolution, plant defences, induced responses to herbivory, pollinator limitation

2009年11月22日 星期日

以分子序列初步重建鉤蛾總科親緣關係


A pilot study on the molecular phylogeny of Drepanoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera) inferred from the nuclear gene EF-1a and the mitochondrial gene COI

文獻出處: Wu CG, Han HX, Xue DY. 2009. A pilot study on the molecular phylogeny of Drepanoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera) inferred from the nuclear gene EF-1α and the mitochondrial gene COI. Bulletin of entomological research. 2009 Jul 7: 1-10 [Link]

簡介
本研究為中國科學院動物學組鱗翅目系統學研究組的武春光博士研究生、韓紅香與薛大勇博士,對鉤蛾總科類群首次進行分子親緣關係的重建,藉以初步釐清此總科內所含類群的單系性、各亞科間的關係,並以現有資訊討論長久具爭議性的鳳蛾科的分類歸屬。

由過去形態證據的研究中,鉤蛾、尺蛾、鳳蛾與燕蛾的分類地位與歸屬一直都有爭議。依據現今最被廣為使用的分類架構,鉤蛾總科包含了鳳蛾科與鉤蛾科,前者僅含少數屬與物種,而鉤蛾科中含鉤蛾亞科, 大鉤蛾亞科以及波紋蛾亞科共約700種描述種,其中鉤蛾亞科的Oreta屬常被提升為族級或亞科級地位。由於形態親緣關係的不穩定與研究者對不同特徵來定義分類階層的權重不一,近幾年來夜蛾科與尺蛾科使用多分子序列來進行高階親緣重建的方法也被應用在鉤蛾與鳳蛾分類群之上。

研究材料主要來自於舊北區中國產類群,包含鉤蛾總科的鳳蛾科2屬2種, 鉤蛾科11屬11種作為內群,外群選用夜蛾科與尺蛾科各2屬2種,表列於備註一並加入台灣產相關屬級或種級物種的網路影像連結。

方法上以核DNA EF-1
α序列以及結合EF-與粒腺體DNA COI序列所分別獲得的親緣樹顯示:
  1. 鳳蛾類群方面,兩屬兩物種Epicopeia hainesiPsychostrophia nymphidiaria形成單系群,此枝系在以EF-序列建構的樹型中與其他枝系關係不清楚,但在結合兩序列的樹型中與同為內群的鉤蛾科加上尺蛾科的枝系形成姊妹群,也就是在此分析結果中,過去鳳蛾歸屬於鉤蛾總科的處理並不適當。此結果在形態上可由鳳蛾並沒有鉤蛾科尺蛾的腹部聽器結構,以及此三分類群在前翅M脈系統、後翅Sc + R1脈與Rs脈關係之間的差異來支持。然而鳳蛾類群真正的分類地位可能需要涵蓋都多的尺蛾與燕蛾分類群與更多的分子序列來進行討論。
  2. 結合EF-與CII序列的樹型顯示廣義的鉤蛾科中Hypsomadius insignisOreta vatama形成單一枝系並與其他鉤蛾類群形成姊妹群,此結果對應形態上的特徵為HypsomadiusOreta的體型較壯碩呈黃褐色至棕色、下唇鬚短寬而密生毛束、口喙與翅刺(frenulum)不發達、後足脛節僅有一排等長的距刺;相對的其他鉤蛾姊妹群體修長呈白黃色、下唇鬚細長而分節明顯、口喙與翅刺皆發達、後足脛節有兩排距刺,兩枝系類群的生殖器結構亦有差異。本研究據此將過去提出的Oretinae亞科恢復使用,使現今鉤蛾總科包含四個亞科,然而作者承認所選取的分類群僅侷限於中國產物種,未來Oretinae類群與姊妹群間的關係尚須更多的分類群取樣來釐清。此外,馬達加斯加特產的 Nidarini(備註二)(包含五描述種)與其他鉤蛾亞科類群的關係應該也是未來待解決的問題。
  3. 鉤蛾亞科大鉤蛾亞科以及波紋蛾亞科在兩顆樹中都各自形成單系群,鉤蛾與大鉤蛾亞科形成姊妹群,以及此枝系與姊妹群大鉤蛾的樹型被高度的支持。此結果與Minet (2002)所提出的形態證據關係相符,他提出大鉤蛾相對波紋蛾與鉤蛾擁有較小且具有背方骨化區的聽器腔,此腔室的形態在大鉤蛾類群呈極度狹窄而至消失皆有。
備註一
Outgroup
Geometridae
Ennominae
Odontopera bilinearia coryphodes [Odontopera bilinearia subarida in Taiwan]
Geometrinae
Tanaorhinus viridiluteata [Tanaorhinus in Taiwan]
Noctuidae
Helicoverpa armigera [Species in Taiwan]
Catocala fraxini
[Catocala armandi shirozui in Taiwan]
Ingroup
Epicopeiidae
Epicopeia hainesi [Epicopeia mencia in Taiwan]
Psychostrophia nymphidiaria

Drepanidae
Cyclidiinae
Cyclidia substigmaria

Drepaninae
Callidrepana patrana [Species in Taiwan]
Ditrigona conflexaria
[D. triangularia in Taiwan]
Hypsomadius insignis [Species in Taiwan]
Macrocilix maia
[Species in Taiwan]
Macrocilix mysticata [M. mysticata flavotincta in Taiwan]
Microblepsis leucosticta
[M. violacea in Taiwan]
Oreta vatama
[O. loochooana in Taiwan]
Tridrepana fulvata
[T. flava in Taiwan]
Thyatirinae
Gaurena fletcheri

Habrosyne conscripta
[H. fraterna chekiangensis in Tawian]
Parapsestis lichenea


備註二
Minet與Scoble (1999)提出的鉤蛾亞科可分為三個族級分類群: 鉤蛾族 Oretini族以及Nidarini族

鉤蛾總科與相關參考文獻
1. Holloway JD. 1998. The Moths of Borneo: Families Castniidae, Callidulidae, Drepanidae and Uraniidae. The Malayan Nature Journal 52: 1–155.
2. Minet J. 2002. The Epicopeiidae: Phylogeny and a redefinition, with the description of new taxa (Lepidoptera: Drepanoidea). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 38: 463–487.
3. Minet J and Scoble MJ. 1999. The drepanoid/geometroid assemblage. pp. 301–320 in Kristensen NP (Ed.) Handbook of Zoology, Vol. IV. Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 35. Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Berlin & New York, Walter de Gruyter.
4. Nakajima H. 1970. A contribution to the knowledge of the immature stages of Drepanidae occurring in Japan. Tinea 8: 167–184.

Abstract
A molecular phylogenetic study of the Drepanoidea based on the EF-
sequences and combined EF-1α and COI sequences was carried out in order to infer higher classification at and above the subfamily level. The sample contained 14 taxa representing 13 genera recognized in the Drepanoidea. The results revealed that the Drepaninae, Thyatirinae and Cyclidiinae respectively form monophyletic groups. The sister relationship between the Drepaninae and the Thyatirinae was validated. The monophyly of the Cyclidiinae with the Drepaninae+Thyatirinae was supported robustly. Hypsomadius insignis and Oreta vatama within the traditional definition of the Drepaninae formed an individual clade with robust support (100%) and constitutes a sister relationship to a clade containing the rest of the Drepaninae in all the topologies, which means that the subfamily Oretinae of the Drepanidae should be restored. The family Drepanidae is divided into four subfamilies: Drepaninae, Oretinae, Thyatirinae and Cyclidiinae in this work. The family Epicopeiidae formed a monophyly with high bootstrap values. The result of combined analysis of EF- and COI showed that the Epicopeiidae have a closer phylogenetic relationship with the Geometridae than with the Drepanidae and belong to neither the Drepanoidea nor the Geometroidea.

蝶類不孕精子與雌性接受能力之共演化


圖片來源:treknature
文獻來源:N Wedell , C Wiklund and J Bergstro¨m. 2009. Coevolution of non-fertile sperm and female receptivity in a butterfly. Biology letters 5: 678–681. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0452 (Published online 29 July 2009)

兩性之間的衝突可促進雄性與雌性生殖特徵的快速演化。許多採行一妻多夫制蝶類的雄蟲在交尾時會傳遞營養物質給雌性以促進雌性的繁殖力,但是當雌性再次與其他雄蟲交尾、造成精子競爭時變產生了兩性的衝突。蝴蝶同時製造了可孕的精子和大量不可孕的精子。暗脈粉蝶(Pieris napi) 的不可孕精子充滿了雌蟲的儲精囊,關閉雌蟲繼續接受精子的能力而降低雌性再次交尾之可能。雌蟲儲存不孕精子的量具有遺傳上的變異,此與雌性抵抗雄性策略的 不反應期有直接相關。雄蟲的精子生產亦有遺傳上的變異。本文中,作者以量化遺傳學和選汰實驗顯示雌蟲的不反應期與雄蟲精子產量具有遺傳上的相關性。發生在 雄蟲操縱組之選汰可能增加雌蟲的接受操縱組雄蟲的頻率,成為一相關的反應,反之亦然。

Sexual conflict can promote rapid evolution of male and female reproductive traits. Males of many polyandrous butterflies transfer nutrients at mating that enhances female fecundity, but generates sexual conflict over female remating due to sperm competition. Butterflies produce both normal fertilizing sperm and large numbers of non-fertile sperm. In the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi, non-fertile sperm fill the females’ sperm storage organ, switching off receptivity and thereby reducing female remating. There is genetic variation in the number of non-fertile sperm stored, which directly relates to the female’s refractory period. There is also genetic variation in males’ sperm production. Here, we show that females’ refractory period and males’ sperm production are genetically correlated using quantitative genetic and selection experiments. Thus selection on male manipulation may increase the frequency of susceptible females to such manipulations as a correlated response and vice versa.

2009年10月25日 星期日

第12屆國際斑蛾研討會

此次會議預計於2010年5月5-9日於土耳其Hatay召開. 相關活動資訊請見此處.

2009年10月24日 星期六

中國產紋翅蛾科新紀錄屬Pyrodeces屬與其一新種、兩新紀錄種描述



The genus Pyroderces Herrich-Schäffer new to China, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae)

文獻出處: Zhang Z and Li H. 2009. The genus Pyroderces Herrich-Schäffer new to China, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae). Zootaxa 2272: 63-68

簡介

本文描述紋翅蛾科Pyrodeces屬在中國的首次紀錄以及一新種(P. bifurcata)與兩新紀錄種(P. argyrogrammos & P. sarcogypsa)的發表。 根據Sinev (2002)與此文中新種的發表,全世界Pyrodeces屬共計11種,而台灣鱗翅目誌中所列的P. simplex Walsingham, 1891與P. nephelopyrrha (Meyrick, 1917)已被Sinev置於Anatrachyntis屬中,故台灣目前並無Pyrodeces屬的物種紀錄。

參考文獻
Heppner JB and Inoue H. 1992. Lepidoptera of Taiwan, 1(2), Checklist. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, USA, 276 pp.
Sinev, SY. 2002. World catalogue of cosmopterigid moths (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, 293, 183 pp.

Abstract
The genus Pyroderces Herrich-Schäffer is recorded for the first time from China. Three species are included: Pyroderces bifurcata sp. nov. is described as new; P. argyrogrammos (Zeller) and P. sarcogypsa (Meyrick) are newly recorded for China. Images of the adults and the genitalia are provided, along with a key to the species from China.

2009年10月23日 星期五

[書介]歐洲蝴蝶之生態學 Ecology of Butterflies in Europe

[書名] Ecology of Butterflies in Europe
[作者] Edited by Josef Settele, Tim Shreeve, Martin Konvicka and Hans van Dyck
[出版年代] 2009
[出版單位] Cambridge University Press
[規格] 513 pages, 37 b/w illus, 24 col illus, 27 tabs.
[ISBN] ISBN-13: 9780521747592

[原文書介網頁] 在此
[內容介紹]
由於蝴蝶具有獨特的吸引力以及他們在研究生物學問題時扮演模式系統的實用功能,在歐洲有大量關於蝴蝶生物學的書籍資料。本書集結了所有此領域重要且近期的知識,對於將此分類群作為模式系統利用的人來說是不可或缺的工具。本書共分為五大部分,茲將各部分主題介紹如下:

引言

1. 介紹:歐洲蝴蝶之生態學- 現在與未來

第一部分 棲地利用:資源與限制

2. 蝴蝶成蟲的食物資源 3. 蝴蝶的交配行為 4. 蝴蝶產卵之位置、行為與模式 5. 蝴蝶的食草與幼蟲生態 6.蝴蝶的體溫調節與棲地利用 7. 蝴蝶的物種分佈模式之預測

第二部分 族群生態學

8. 蝴蝶的族群結構與動態 9. 蝴蝶擴散的代價與獲益 10. 蝴蝶的族群遺傳學 11.歐洲蝴蝶的擬寄生物

第三部分 演化生物學

12. 蝴蝶的適應性與可塑性:基因與環境的交互作用表現 13.蝴蝶翅膀形態在功能上的重要性 14.蝴蝶生殖力的演化生態學 15.蝴蝶生物學的梯度

第四部分 時間與空間中的物種:分佈與親緣關係

16.壞物種-生態學與演化學如何混淆蝴蝶的分類 17.蝴蝶之動物相結構、親緣地理與歷史意義 18.蝴蝶的豐富度樣式與梯度 19.蝴蝶雜交帶的生態遺傳學與演化生態學

第五部分 全球變遷與保育

20.氣候暖化與蝴蝶分佈之改變 21.歐洲蝴蝶的保育地位 22. 蝴蝶的(關聯)族群生存力分析是否為保育瀕危物種時的水晶球 23. 歐洲生態系統的蝴蝶-土地利用的衝擊與保育經營管理上的機會

2009年10月19日 星期一

我們的島 - 再見 蝴蝶

公視我們的島節目將在10月19日播出"再見 蝴蝶". 請至其官方網頁瞭解其播出內容.

2009年10月12日 星期一

中國產Epipristis屬尺蛾之分類檢討以及兩新種之描述

文獻來源: HAN H, EXPÓSITO HERMOSA A, XUE D. 2009. A taxonomic study of Epipristis Meyrick, 1888 from China, with descriptions of two new species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae). Zootaxa 2263: 31–41. [全文下載]

Abstract
The genus Epipristis Meyrick, 1888 from China is reviewed, and two new species are described: E. roseus sp. nov., from North China and E. pullusa sp. nov., from Central China. The three previously known species from China are redescribed. A key to all species from China is provided. Illustrations of adults and genitalia are presented.

刊登於泰晤士報的Dr. Gaden Robinson生平與弔謁

其pdf檔請由此連結下載

2009年10月11日 星期日

晚近擴張物種在第四紀冰河期的歷史與現代分布模式

文獻來源:C Kerdelhué et al.. 2009. Quaternary history and contemporary patterns in a currently expanding species. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 220 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-220

背景
第四紀的氣候振盪對物種的演化造成巨大的影響。在高緯度地區,族群必須在避難所區域度過嚴寒的冰河期,然後週期性地在間冰期拓殖回高緯度地帶。這種歷史通常會導致遺傳多樣性的損失;反之,未經歷過冰河時期的族群,可能會比其祖先具有較高的遺傳多樣性。這些特色強烈影響到現今的遺傳多樣性分佈狀況,甚至影響到這些物種如何因應當前的全球變遷。作者針對一種廣分佈的松舟蛾複合群(Thaumetopoea pityocampa/T. wilkinsoni complex, Notodontidae)進行粒線體遺傳多樣性的研究,該種是地中海盆地與南歐地區的森林性害蟲。此物種對近期氣候變遷的反應為快速的自然擴張其分佈區域,其中或許也包括偶然的人為遷移。本研究的目標是探討第四紀冰河期氣候振盪是否影響該物種的分佈範圍,以及判斷晚近拓殖地區的族群是否能鑑別岀近代遷移過程的遺傳足跡。

結果
作者鑑別岀三個具有地理結構的主要支系。在大部份的歐洲地區,其遺傳岐異度的樣式符合典型經過顯著冰河週期的物種。除了避難所以外,歐洲的各個族群的特色為只具有一種單倍基因型(haplotype)與基因多樣性極低,此特色被預期發生在氣候條件變好時受到物種快速地重新拓殖的地區。相反地,其他在地中海盆地周圍的次支系發生在受限的部分且有強烈的空間結構,如同受冰河影響有限的區域,在各個族群中保留其高度的遺傳多樣性,且大多數的單倍基因型是該地特有的。這種格局在地中海的遙遠離島(克里特島、塞普勒斯、科西嘉島)上格外顯著,亦具有特有的單倍基因型。近期引入的典型是會在地理分佈距離遙遠的族群間出現非常近似的單倍基因型,但是由於缺乏整體的遺傳結構、故在歐洲大部份的地區難以偵測。

結論

在冰川作用不明顯的地區,晚近的蛾類引入/擴張可由是否存在強烈的空間遺傳結構來偵測。反之,經歷第四紀冰河期強烈氣候振盪的區域,其天然族群則缺乏遺傳結構,而晚近的族群擴張樣式則尚無法偵測。

Abstract

Background Quaternary climatic oscillations had dramatic effects on species evolution. In northern latitudes, populations had to survive the coldest periods in refugial areas and recurrently colonized northern regions during interglacials. Such a history usually results in a loss of genetic diversity. Populations that did not experience glaciations, in contrast, probably maintained most of their ancestral genetic diversity. These characteristics dramatically affected the present-day distribution of genetic diversity and may influence the ability of species to cope with the current global changes. We conducted a range-wide study of mitochondrial genetic diversity in the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa/T. wilkinsoni complex, Notodontidae), a forest pest occurring around the Mediterranean Basin and in southern Europe. This species is responding to the current climate change by rapid natural range expansion and can also be accidentally transported by humans. Our aim was to assess if Quaternary climatic oscillations had a different effect across the species' range and to determine if genetic footprints of contemporary processes can be identified in areas of recent introduction.
Results We identified three main clades that were spatially structured. In most of Europe, the genetic diversity pattern was typical for species that experienced marked glaciation cycles. Except in refugia, European populations were characterized by the occurrence of one main haplotype and by a strong reduction in genetic diversity, which is expected in regions that were rapidly re-colonized when climatic conditions improved. In contrast, all other sub-clades around the Mediterranean Basin occurred in limited parts of the range and were strongly structured in space, as is expected in regions in which the impact of glaciations was limited. In such places, genetic diversity was retained in most populations, and almost all haplotypes were endemic. This pattern was extreme on remote Mediterranean islands (Crete, Cyprus, Corsica) where highly differentiated, endemic haplotypes were found. Recent introductions were typified by the existence of closely-related haplotypes in geographically distant populations, which is difficult to detect in most of Europe because of a lack of overall genetic structure.
Conclusion In regions that were not prone to marked glaciations, recent moth introductions/expansions could be detected due to the existence of a strong spatial genetic structure. In contrast, in regions that experienced the most intense Quaternary climatic oscillations, the natural populations are not genetically structured, and contemporary patterns of population expansion remain undetected.

2009年10月4日 星期日

星燈蛾屬分類學回顧與加拉巴哥產類群研究進展


星燈蛾屬的分佈與分類簡述
星燈蛾屬(Utehteisa)為夜蛾科燈蛾亞科燈蛾族(註一)中日行性活動的類群,屬內現分為四個亞屬,其一是過去挾義星燈蛾(Utetheisa sensu stricto)所限的星燈蛾亞屬,全世界大約20~30種,當中含廣泛分布於舊世界的U. pulchellaU. pulchelloidesU. lotrix(後兩者亦分佈於台灣),以及新世界的U. ornatrixU. bella,此亞屬類群之胸翅部具有紅黑白色塊斑紋,並取食紫草科的白水木屬(Tournefortia)植物,長久被認為利用此寄主的次級代謝物-氰化物(PAs)進行對天敵的化學防禦機制,並以警戒斑紋使天敵增強對星燈蛾有毒或不可食性(unpalatable)的印象。其餘三亞屬分別於Holloway (1988)(PitasilaAtasca)以及de Vos (2007)(Raanya)置於星燈蛾屬下(詳見de Vos文章與本Blog對其文章的介紹)。此三屬在外觀上近似於燈蛾族成員蝶燈蛾屬(Nyctemera), 然根據明尼蘇達大學Susan Weller研究群對燈蛾科親緣關係重建的結果,NyctemeraPitasila並非近緣群,而Pitasila顯然應被視為星燈蛾屬Utetheisa亞屬。三亞屬已知皆分佈於印澳區(Indo-Australian region),所含物種數為25、13與1種,台灣有U. (Pitasila) fractifascia (模式標本)與U. (Pitasila) inconstans (原名模式標本成蟲幼蟲生態影像),前者為台灣特有種,後者為分布於台灣與日本,並於2009年由傅建明與徐渙之先生確認其於綠島與蘭嶼的分佈。

加拉巴哥群島產星燈蛾屬研究史回顧
加拉巴哥距其南美洲屬國厄瓜多海岸線以西約971公里,為由大小不一的19座島嶼所組成的群島,其盛名與演化論提出者達爾文的旅航與該地相關研究有密切關係,其獨特的動植物相亦吸引生物學家屢屢造訪。事實上達爾文的造訪也與該群島星燈蛾屬的研究史有關,Butler (1877)指出達爾文曾經於群島上採集到廣泛分布於新世界的U. ornatrix,然而此證據標本至今無法由典藏於大英博物館的達爾文採集品中尋獲,而成為此島群研究史中其中的一個謎。Wallengren於1860年發表了第一種加拉巴哥特有的星燈蛾U. galapagensis(註二),後續有Hayes (1975)所發表的U. perryiU. devriesi兩新種,以及後續大約四篇對這些物種的群島內新地理分佈紀錄的文章。

加拉巴哥產星燈蛾之所以會被研究者關注,一方面是此屬為該群島鱗翅目特有率第三高的類群,並且是唯一分布於此地的燈蛾亞科;一方面是此群島所包含的星燈蛾除了新世界廣佈種U. ornatrix具有警戒色以外,其餘物種皆為灰褐色調,這個觀察使得加拉巴哥特有星燈蛾的化學防禦機制、日夜活動行為以及非警戒型顏色斑紋被拿來與典型星燈蛾做比較,並進一步探討此類群是否受不同的選汰壓力而演化。於此,Roque-Albelo等人於2002年對此觀察提出了四個假說: (1) 此類群具有化學防禦之不可被食性(unpalatable),然而大多為夜行性活動因此使得日間視覺上警戒天敵的鮮明顏色不再被需要;(2) 具有化學防禦且為日行性,然而利用隱蔽的灰褐色作為第二線的防禦機制; (3) 沒有化學防禦因此具可被食性,也因此不需要具有警戒色來宣示其不好吃; (4) 既沒有化學防禦又是夜行性,因此就不需要具有警戒色。而Roque-Albelo等人雖然確認U. galapagensis幼蟲取食白水木屬植物並且能夠分泌氰化物,然而並沒有測試此物種的可被食性。Garrett等人於2008年的研究中選取了加拉巴哥特有的蜘蛛與火山岩蜥蜴作為U. galapagensis是否具有可被食性的實驗,並且使用同域分佈的螟蛾科物種作為控制組中的獵物。其結果顯示相對於控制組螟蛾被兩天敵完全取食,U. galapagensis實驗組中的蜘蛛會使用口氣接觸星燈蛾,最後將其棄於巢外,而蜥蜴並未取食所有星燈蛾,並顯示出勉強吞食的行為,以及取食後清理行為,少數情況蜥蜴嘗試取食後會再將星燈蛾吐出。Garrett等人對Roque-Albelo等人的假說提出討論,他們認為取食研究支持了前兩個假說,也就是以化學物質來抵禦夜行性蜘蛛,並以隱避色降低被蜥蜴的攻擊。此外另外兩特有種U. perryiU. devriesi也正用來進行類似的取食實驗 (Hartmann et al., unpublished)。

這些觀察與假說測試,使Roque-Albelo等人 (2009)又衍生出了幾個對加拉巴哥特有、具隱蔽色星燈蛾類群演化上的興趣: (1) 這些星燈蛾是何時失去警戒色的? 又是什麼原因造成的 (2) 這些具隱避色類群是否由具警戒色的祖先拓殖至加拉巴哥,抑或是由夜行性具隱蔽色的祖先而來?

加拉巴哥群島產星燈蛾屬兩新物種描述
Roque-Albelo與Landry (2009)近期發表了兩新種U. connerorumU. henrii,前種廣佈於群島,後者限於San Cristobal Island,並紀錄兩者皆取食厄瓜多特有白水木類群T. pubescens。此外並重新確認U. galapagensis僅分布於San Cristobal Island,並提供加拉巴哥此屬六物種的外部型態檢索表。作者在文中提及DeCosta對U. galapagensis與新種U. connerorum進行粒線體DNA之COI序列進行分析,在668鹼基對中遺傳距離介於1.06~2.26%,並建議兩者具有近緣關係。未來是否會加入其他特有種與警戒色類群一起分析探討加拉巴哥星燈蛾的起源? 著實令人期待。

註一: Lafontaine & Fibiger (2006)依據現有的形態資料,參考Mitchell et al. (2006)年的分子親緣關係,並考量到各分類群的單系性,提出夜蛾總科新的分類架構,當中將過去的燈蛾科與毒蛾科降為廣義夜蛾科中亞科的階層。夜蛾總科的分類研究現況將在未來再做介紹。

註二: Roque-Albelo與Landry (2009)提及U. galapagensis在Wallengren (1860)的原始發表中命名為Euchelia galapagenis,卻在Wallengren (1861)中將此種種小名載為galapagensis,然而並未指出更名的原因,因此1861年的galapagensis應為不正確的後續拼法(incorrect subsequent spelling)。然而galapagensis被所有後續研究者所盛行使用,故參考ICZN 33.3.1法規將此種小名考量為正當訂正 (justified emendation)並成為此物種的有效名。

相關網路資料
世界產星燈蛾名錄

參考文獻
Fu CM and Hsu HC. 2009. Moths of Green Island. Taichung: Taichung Nature Research Society, 78pp.
Garrett SE, Conner WE and Roque-Albelo L. 2008. Alkaloidal protection of Utetheisa galapagensis against an invertebrate and a vertebrate predator in the Galapagos Islands. Galapagos
Research 65: 2–6.
Hayes A. 1975. The larger moths of the Galapagos Islands (Geometroidea, Sphingoidea and Noctuoidea). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 40(4): 145–208.
Holloway JD. 1988. The moths of Borneo, part 6: Actiidae: Syntominae, Euchromiinae, Arctiinae, Aganainae (to Noctuidae). Southdene Sdn. Bhd, Malaysia.
Roque-Albelo L, Garrett SE, Conner WE. 2009. Darwin’s moth: Utetheisa in the Galapagos Islands. In: Conner WE (Ed.) Tiger Moths and Woolly Bears: Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution of the Arctiidae. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 207–222. [Google Library線上部份閱覽本Blog對此書的介紹]
Roque-Albelo L, Landry B. 2002. The Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) of the Galapagos Islands: their identifi cation, distribution, and host plants, with new records. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique Suisse 74: 217–226.
Roque-Albelo L, Schroeder FC, Conner WE, Bezzerides A, Hoebeke ER, Meinwald J and Eisner T.
2002. Chemical defense and aposematism: the case of Utetheisa galapagensis. Chemoecology 12: 153–157.
Roque-Albelo L and Landry B. 2009. Two new species of Utetheisa Hubner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae) from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. ZooKeys 21: 55–72
Vos R de. 2007. The Utetheisa species of the subgenera Pitasila, Atasca and Raanya Subg. N. (Insecta, Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Aldrovandia 3: 31-120.
Wallengren HDJ. 1860. Lepidopterologische Mittheilungen. II. Wiener Entomologische Monatschrift 4(6): 161–176.
Wallengren HDJ. 1861. Lepidoptera species novas descripsit. In: Kongliga Svenska Fregatten Eugenies Resa Omkring Jorden... Zoologi V, Insecta, pp. 351–390, 3 pls.

2009年10月3日 星期六

最新的證據顯示蛺蝶科的多樣化起源自接近白堊紀/第三紀的過渡時期


文獻來源:Wahlberg, N., Leneveu, J., Kodandaramaiah, U., Pena, C., Nylin, S., Freitas, A. V. L. and Brower, A. V. Z. (2009) Nymphalid butterflies diversify following near demise at the cretaceous/tertiary boundary. Proc. R. Soc. B. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1303

簡介
蛺蝶科分布廣泛,在生態系中為重要的植食性昆蟲,也同時是除了果蠅外的重要模式物種,在演化發育、擬態生物學等領域扮演重要角色。由於蛺蝶科為泛世界型分布的種類,其分化年代在本文章之前,僅有針對亞科級或是屬級進行定年,因此對於蛺蝶科的分化年代仍未有定論。本文章利用10個基因以及235型態特徵,重建蛺蝶科的親緣關係,包含400個分布於蛺蝶科主要支系的屬。作者們的分析顯示蛺蝶科的起源約為9000萬年前的白堊紀,而10-12個支系在新熱帶區與東方區的祖先則逃過了白堊紀末期的大絕滅災難。其分化的格局顯示其他支系的滅絕年代在白堊紀/第三紀的邊緣,以及在第三紀時種化效率較為快速。

Abstract
The butterfly family Nymphalidae contains some of the most important non-drosophilid insect model systems for evolutionary and ecological studies, yet the evolutionary history of the group has remained shrouded in mystery. We have inferred a robust phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequences of 10 genes and 235 morphological characters for exemplars of 400 of the 540 valid nymphalid genera representing all major lineages of the family. By dating the branching events, we infer that Nymphalidae originated in the Cretaceous at 90 Ma, but that the ancestors of 10–12 lineages survived the end-Cretaceous catastrophe in the Neotropical and Oriental regions. Patterns of diversification suggest extinction of lineages at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (65 Ma) and subsequent elevated speciation rates in the Tertiary.

2009年10月1日 星期四

帝王斑蝶遷移之導航受到觸角上的全日時鐘和太陽羅盤共同影響

圖片來源:bing-wallpaper

文獻來源:C Merlin, RJ Gegear, SM Reppert. 2009. Antennal Circadian Clocks Coordinate Sun Compass Orientation in Migratory Monarch Butterflies. Science 325 (5948): 1700 - 1704. DOI: 10.1126/science.1176221


帝王斑蝶每年秋季會跨越美國東北方遷徙至墨西哥山區針葉林度冬,此長距離遷移2000英哩到單一地點的行為一直吸引科學家們。引導這些蝴蝶定位其終點目標的關鍵構造-具有日光補償功能的太陽羅盤-長期以來一直被認為是昆蟲的腦部,但是本文的作者-麻州醫藥學院的神經生物學家推翻了這個想法:他們發現觸角才是長距離遷徙中扮演定位的關鍵部位。觸角是昆蟲非常重要的器官,已知其功能包括嗅覺的偵測、風向感知、甚至聲波震動,觸角具有精確的方向導航功能則是全新的發現,並為觸角與太陽羅盤的研究開啟了全新的一頁。

過去研究顯示:蝴蝶利用一種類似於控制我們睡眠與甦醒週期的全日時鐘來校正其飛行方向與維持向南飛行,即使太陽在空中的位置一直在改變。過去的研究者在缺乏直接證據的情形下,一直認為帝王斑蝶校正太陽羅盤的因子也位在太陽羅盤所在的昆蟲腦部,但是作者發現除去觸角的帝王斑蝶會迷失飛行方向。在本研究中,作者除去一些帝王斑蝶的觸角,讓其在戶外的飛行模擬場地中進行試驗,評估其是否仍能順利南飛,結果發現除去觸角的帝王斑蝶無法正確地辨別南方、而觸角完整者則可以。研究人員接著用黑色的塗料塗在觸角上,使其不能接受到光線的刺激,結果無觸角的帝王斑蝶會往一錯誤的固定方向飛行;然而將透明塗料塗在觸角上的對照組則能準確地表現向南飛行的行為,暗示觸角能否接受到光刺激是導航的關鍵,而帝王斑蝶的遷徙是依靠觸角上的全日時鐘與腦中的太陽羅盤相輔協調達成。

Abstract
During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated Sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here, we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated Sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal clocks exist in monarchs, and that they likely provide the primary timing mechanism for Sun compass orientation. These unexpected findings pose a novel function for the antennae and open a new line of investigation into clock-compass connections that may extend widely to other insects that use this orientation mechanism.

2009年9月25日 星期五

酢醬灰蝶如何轉換與利用來自寄主植物之類黃酮衍生物

圖片來源:台灣昆蟲維基館

文獻來源: Mizokami H & Yoshitama K. 2009. Sequestration and metabolism of host-plant flavonoids by the Pale Grass Blue, Pseudozizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Entomological Science 12: 171–176. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8298.2009.00322.x

本研究針對類黃酮化合物在酢醬灰蝶 (Pseudozizeeria maha) 的卵、幼蟲、蛹與成蟲中的種類與含量。在蛹與成蟲中所偵測到類黃酮化合物衍生物主要異牡荊素(Isovitexin),而幼蟲體內主要的類黃酮化合物則是肥皂草苷(saponarin)幼蟲會將異牡荊素經過生物轉換作用合成肥皂草苷,在蛹期則再將肥皂草苷轉換為異牡荊素。類黃酮化合物的總累積量會因性別而異、特別是在成蟲階段,雌性成蟲體內的類黃酮化合物濃度顯著高於雄性。在卵中亦可偵測到這些類黃酮化合物。以上結果指出類黃酮化合物不只被利用於翅膀色彩上、同時也可作為抵抗天然威脅的化學防禦化合物。

Abstract
Flavonoids in the eggs, larvae, pupae and adult butterflies of Pseudozizeeria maha were identified and quantified. Isovitexin (apigenin 6-C-glucoside) was the dominant flavonoid detected in pupae and imagines, whereas saponarin (isovitexin 7-O-glucoside) was the dominant flavonoid in larvae. Saponarin, biotransformed from isovitexin by the larvae, was found to be reconverted into isovitexin at the pupal stages. The total amounts of accumulated flavonoids differed between sexes, particularly in adults where the bodies of females had a much higher flavonoid concentration than that of the males. These flavonoids were also detected in the eggs. These results indicate the possibility that flavonoids are utilized in not only wing coloration but also as a chemical defense compound against natural threats.

Key words: C-glycosylflavones, Oxalis corniculata, plant–insect interaction, Pseudozizeeria maha.

[新書]蕈蛾科的生物學, 分布與多樣性

[書名] Biology, distribution and diversity of tineid moths
[作者] Gaden S. Robinson
[年代] 2009
[出版] The Natural History Museum (London) & Southdene Sdn. Bhd
[規格] A4, 143 pages, 16彩色圖版
[售價] 40英鎊

由近日驟逝的Dr. Gaden S. Robinson所著的新書. 其訂購資訊請洽馬來西亞自然學會(網址)

2009年9月23日 星期三

以DNA條碼技術重新評估澳洲產星尺蛾之多樣性且避免破壞模式標本

獻來源: Hausmann A, Hebert PDN, Mitchell A, Rougerie R, Sommerer M, Edwards T, Young CJ. 2009. Revision of the Australian Oenochroma vinaria Guenée, 1858 species-complex (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Oenochrominae): DNA barcoding reveals cryptic diversity and assesses status of type specimen without dissection. Zootaxa 2239: 1-21.

最近研究者利用全球鱗翅目生命條碼計畫(All Leps)的資料庫發現產於澳洲的尺蛾Oenochroma vinaria Guenée, 1858其實包含了兩個種。透過分析近年採集的標本以及150年前採集的的雌性選模標本的生命條碼片段,作者確認上述兩種之一是vinaria,另將Monoctenia decora處理為O. vinaria的同物異名,並指定了一隻選模標本。另一種是新種,作者將之命名為Oenochroma barcodificata sp. nov.,文中並有詳細的生活史描述,目前所知分布於塔斯馬尼亞以及新南威爾斯。

Abstract
The assembly of a DNA barcode library for Australian Lepidoptera revealed that Oenochroma vinaria Guenée, 1858, as currently understood, is actually a mix of two different species. By analyzing DNA barcodes from recently collected specimens and the 150 year-old female lectotype of O. vinaria, we propose a reliable assignment of the name vinaria to one of these two species. A lectotype is designated for Monoctenia decora, a confirmed synonym of O. vinaria, and a new species, Oenochroma barcodificata sp. nov., is described. This species is only known from Tasmania and New South Wales; its biology and immature stages are described in detail.

香港的小鱗翅類: 織蛾科, 錦織蛾屬的分類檢討

文獻來源: Wang SX, Kendrick RC, Sterling P. 2009. Microlepidoptera of Hong Kong: Oecophoridae I: the genus Promalactis Meyrick. Zootaxa 2239: 31–44 (2009)

Abstract
Ten species of the genus Promalactis Meyrick, 1908 are reported based on the specimens collected from Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Seven of them are described as new: P. quinilineata sp. nov., P. similinfulata sp. nov., P. noviloba sp. nov., P. longiuncata sp. nov., P. biovata sp. nov., P. lobatifera sp. nov. and P. apicispinifera sp. nov. Images of the adults and genitalia are provided.

2009年9月20日 星期日

非洲白鳳蝶的系統發生學與擬態翅紋的演化

文獻出處:Clark, R. & Vogler, A. P. (2009) A phylogenetic framwork for wing pattern evolutio in the mimetic Mocker Swallowtail Papilio dardanus. Molecular Ecology 18: 3872-3884.

簡介
非洲白鳳蝶(Papilio dardanus)被認為是貝氏擬態(Batesian mimicry)中的擬態者(mimic),其雌雄二態性與雌性其中一型擬態大樺斑蝶(Danaus plexippus)的表型長久以來被視為擬態生物學中的經典例子之一。本篇文章嘗試利用分子資料重建非洲白鳳蝶不同亞種間與不同區域間的親緣關係,嘗試找出其擬態斑紋的演化時順。該研究使用兩個粒線體基因與數個與擬態斑紋有關或無關的核基因,重建不同亞種間的親緣關係。結果顯示粒線體基因在不同區域間呈現地理上的結構,並且有較少的多樣性;而核基因間則無地理上的結構,並且基因序列間有多樣性的情形。定年的結果顯示,非洲白鳳蝶的種化約發生於2.9百萬年前,而擬態斑紋族群的產生則在0.55-0.94百萬年前,擬態斑紋的產生在非洲白鳳蝶的原名亞種(P. d. dardanus)中是較早出現的,但仍晚於雌雄二態性。

Abstract
The Batesian mimetic swallowtail butterfly Papilio dardanus exhibits numerous distinct wing colour morphs whose evolutionary origins require large phenotypic shifts. A phylogenetic framework to study the history of these morphs was established by DNA sequencing of representative subspecies from sub-Saharan Africa and Indian Ocean islands. Two mitochondrial genes and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer marker revealed deeply separated eastern and western African mainland lineages, plus one lineage each on Madagascar and Grande Comore. These markers showed very little polymorphism within lineages. In contrast, markers genetically linked to the mimicry locus H, including the transcription factor invected and two adjacent amplified fragment length polymorphisms-derived sequences, showed high nucleotide diversity but were not geographically structured. Variation in the unlinked wingless gene showed a similar pattern, rejecting the hypothesis that high level of variation in the H region is due to balancing selection exerted by the phenotypes. The separation from a common ancestor with Papilio phorcas estimated at 2.9 Ma coincides with the origin of a mimicry model, Danaus chrysippus. However, the model reached Africa only at the time of the internal splits of P. dardanus mtDNA groups, here estimated at 0.55-0.94 Ma. The nuclear genome shows less geographic structure and may not track recent population differentiation, suggesting that widespread mimicry morphs have arisen early in the evolution of the P. dardanus lineage, although after the male-female dimorphism which is ancestral. The current wide distribution of P. dardanus and population subdivision evident from mtDNA may have been achieved only with the spread of the models across Africa.

2009年9月16日 星期三

中國地區穀蛾科太宇穀蛾屬(Gerontha)分類檢討與四新種發表



TAXONOMIC STUDY ON THE GENUS GERONTHA WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA , TINEIDAE) FROM CHINA , WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF FOUR NEW SPECIES

文 獻出處: Li, HH and YL Xiao. 2009. Taxonomic study on the genus Gerontha Walker (Lepidoptera, Tineidae) from China, with descriptions of four new species. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 34(2): 224-233.

簡介
太宇穀蛾屬(Gerontha)為穀蛾科中前翅延長且其上著生有非平行翅面的叢生鱗片,以及後足向後延伸並交疊等特徵的分類群(參考澳洲產物種標本之網路影像)。全世界已知23種主要分布於東方區與 舊北區系。本文檢討中國地區產穀蛾科太宇穀蛾屬分類群,共紀錄10物種,含4新種、3新紀錄種以及兩種之雌蟲首次描述。此屬台灣目前僅紀錄一種G. dracuncula Meyrick, 1928,並亦分佈於中國雲南。

Abstract
Ten species of the genus Gerontha Walker are reviewed from China. Among them, four species are described as new ( G. similihoenei sp. nov. , G. rostriformis sp. nov., G. trapezia sp. nov., and G. rugulosa sp. nov.), and three species are newly recorded for China (G. siamensis Moriuti, G. navapuriensis Moriuti and G. borea Moriuti) . The females of G. flexura Huang, Hirowatari & Wang and G. siamensis Moriuti are reported for the first time . A key to all the known Chinese species is given.

在現代系統發生學研究中,分子資料是否取代了形態資料?

文獻來源:Bybee SM, Zaspel JM, Beucke KA, Scott CH, Smith BW, & Branham MA. 2009. Are molecular data supplanting morphological data in modern phylogenetic studies? Systematic Entomology. 34(4): . [全文下載]

系統發生學長久以來一直以形態特徵為主要的資料來源,直到聚合酶連鎖反應(polymerase chain reaction, PCR)以及分子技術的長足進展之後,DNA成了系統發生學主要的資料來源,結合形態與分子資料的研究也時有所見。此後關於形態資料在系統發生學研究的效用如何一直爭議不斷,且不同分類群的專家之間看法也常有出入。本文作者群選擇七個以系統生物學(包含各分類群)與兩個以昆蟲系統發生為主軸的期刊,分析自1992年至2007年間系統發生研究的文章,統計以形態資料、分子資料以及形態加分子資料的研究數量為何,試圖找出研究發展趨勢。結果過去15年包含各分類群的文章共有1469篇,有73%使用分子資料,18%使用形態資料,9%使用形態加分子資料。分三大類來看,分子資料的使用以植物(77%)最多,非節肢動物(73.1%)次之,昆蟲(66.8%)最少;形態資料的使用在昆蟲(19.9%)以及非節肢動物(19.1%)幾乎為植物(12.5%)的兩倍;分子加形態資料的使用以昆蟲(13.3%)最多,接著是植物(12.5%),非節肢動物(7.8%)最少。在昆蟲系統發生的期刊中,有71.9%的研究使用形態資料,21.5%使用分子資料,6.6%使用形態加分子資料。結果顯示雖然目前許多研究著重於分析大量的分子資料,形態資料仍常被使用,特別是在昆蟲領域。作者認為在昆蟲研究中形態資料依然被廣為使用可能是因為昆蟲有大量且狀況良好的標本收藏,而且形態構造高度特化,物種多樣性極高再加上強調形態特徵的分類傳統。作者最後呼籲所有分類學家仍應重視形態資料,否則我們可能將會失去鑑定與描述生物的能力。

2009年9月14日 星期一

由自動特徵選取系統來加速生物多樣性物種的開拓, 兼論數位時代對分類學門的影響

ACCELERATING TAXONOMIC DISCOVERY THROUGH AUTOMATED CHARACTER EXTRACTION

文 獻出處: Salle, JL, Q Wheeler, P Jackway, S Winterton, D. Hobern & D. Lovell. 2009. Accelerating taxonomic discovery through automated character extraction. Zootaxa 2217: 43-55.

簡介
由最近期全世界物種數的統計資料我們可以看到,由林奈氏出版自然系統 (Systema Naturae)以 來的250年間,約有一百八十萬種物種被發表,然而如此龐大的分類群數量卻只代表了地球中20%的成員。於此,對於急欲探討生物的多樣性、自然資源管理、 保育政策執行以及永續發展為終極目標的人來說,分類學家的地位較過去來說顯得更為重要且不可取代,然而,舊有且以形態描述進行發表新物種的傳統分類學方 法,卻被視為過於緩慢,甚至造成新物種發現發表的阻礙。

數位時代的來臨,正逐漸帶領分類學走向更寬廣的路,利用網際合作的平台,許多全球 生物資料庫(註)整合了當今最新的分類資訊、分子序列資料以及珍貴的古今文獻數位典藏,這些資訊的便利與易獲得性,使分類學家能夠更有效率的進行全球性的 分類群檢討,並在新發表文章時,將模式與重要標本數位影像、分子序列、分類描述、分類檢索表與文獻資料等種種資訊上傳至各網路資料庫群,可說是對全球物種 數統計與新物種發表之資訊取得的革新,並助於型態與分子資訊的整合。

對於物種鑑定或是對生物觀察有興趣者或研究人員來說,電腦運算也提供 了肉眼辨識以外的可能性。以昆蟲鑑定來說,在取得一隻標本部分清晰的翅斑紋或翅脈結構的影像之後,利用數位影像後製(例如裁切、修色、去除背景雜訊)、電 腦運算與結合內建標本影像資料庫的搜尋,便有辦法篩選出與該標本有關的物種,以此達成物種的鑑定。

然而,相關研究人員目前對於電腦運算潛 力的期望並不僅於已知物種的鑑定,本文作者群倡議將來能夠發展出一套全自動或半自動特徵選取系統(automated character extraction system),已達成對標本影像(包含平面影像、3D影像、立體造影、X光影像、核磁共振影像以及斷層掃描)的型態特徵選取,並執行同源性特徵的評估與 特徵矩陣化,進而應用特徵矩陣完成檢索表與分類描述的撰寫甚至進行親緣關係的重建。如此對於現今絕多數分類學家皆無法想像的可能性,作者群認為這樣的新思維是結合數位時代所必然的趨勢。然而作者群的確也指出了自動特徵選取系統在每個微細步驟、電腦邏輯編寫以及人力培訓上的艱難處,也提出未來不同領域(例如生物多樣性資訊、影像分析、軟體與搜尋引擎開發技術、語言學等)與專業技術人員整合。當然,也包含了資金的援助。

註: 全球生物多樣性資料庫相關網站:
Encyclopedia of Life (EoL)
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)
GenBank
Atlas of Living Australia (ALA)
Species 2000
ITIS Catalogue of Life
MorphBank
ZooBank
Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL)

Abstract
This paper discusses the following key messages. Taxonomy is (and taxonomists are) more important than ever in times of global change. Taxonomic endeavour is not occurring fast enough: in 250 years since the creation of the Linnean Systema Naturae, only about 20% of Earth’s species have been named. We need fundamental changes to the taxonomic process and paradigm to increase taxonomic productivity by orders of magnitude. Currently, taxonomic productivity is limited principally by the rate at which we capture and manage morphological information to enable species discovery. Many recent (and welcomed) initiatives in managing and delivering biodiversity information and accelerating the taxonomic process do not address this bottleneck. Development of computational image analysis and feature extraction methods is a crucial missing capacity needed to enable taxonomists to overcome the taxonomic impediment in a meaningful time frame.