2013年10月29日 星期二


矮綠刺蛾 (Parasa pygmy)終齡幼蟲取食台灣雲杉葉

文獻來源:Wu, S. and W. C. Chang. 2013. Review of the Parasa undulata (Cai, 1983) species group with the first conifer-feeding larva for Limacodidae and descriptions of two new species from China and Taiwan (Lepidoptera, Limacodidae). Zookeys 345: 29-46. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.345.6179 [2013/10/23] [連結]


Although the caterpillars are well-known for the stings and magnificent coloration, the systematics of Limacodidae is historically neglected and chaotic due to the difficulty in matching the larval with adult stages as well as the very conservative and convergent adult morphology. One of the biggest taxonomic problems surrounds a collective group from Southeastern Asia, termed the “green limacodid moths”, which harbours at least 90 species placed in the genus Parasa Walker, 1859 and 14 “subunits”. The P. undulata group was previously composed of 3 species from China and Taiwan, and characterized only by wing pattern. This species group is extensively studied herein with two new species described, i.e. P. viridiflamma sp. n. (Taiwan) and P. minwangi sp. n. (S. China), and discovery of female genitalia of three species, presenting new phylogenetic insights in this potentially paraphyletic genus. In addition, one limacodid larva was found to be feeding exclusively on Picea (Pinaceae) in Taiwan. Its identity, Parasa pygmy Solovyev, 2010 in P. undulata group, is confirmed through matching its COI sequence to the adult. This discovery is also biologically significant because the previous known host breadth of Parasa was of polyphagy on various angiosperm plant families. This case, therefore, represents the first record of conifer-feeding behavior in this family as well as the first of specialized herbivory in the genus. Meanwhile, the background match between Picea leaves and larval coloration is shared with other Picea-feeding insects. This phenomenon is worth of further investigation in the aspect of convergent evolution of crypsis associated with a particular plant.


過去刺蛾科幼蟲多被記錄為廣食性的取食被子植物類群。本文章首次記載了刺蛾科幼蟲 (矮綠刺蛾 Parasa pygmy)專食裸子植物(台灣雲杉)的行為與特別的幼蟲體色斑紋,並同時描述兩新種,即台灣產焰綠刺蛾 (P. viridiflamma)與中國南部產王氏綠刺蛾 (P. minwangi)。此幼蟲與兩新種皆歸屬於波帶綠刺蛾 (Parasa undulata)種群,此種群目前僅知分布於中國大陸與台灣。藉由幼蟲形態與雌蟲生殖器結構的特徵討論,本文章亦評估了此種群與可能為駢系群的同屬綠刺蛾類群的親緣關係。

2013年10月22日 星期二


合歡山曲翼夜蛾 (Teratoglaea hohuanshanensis Wu, 2013)正模式標本,存放於林試所昆蟲標本館
文獻來源:Wu, S. 2013. Teratoglaea hohuanshanensis sp. nov., a new Xylenini moth endemic to Taiwan (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae). Zootaxa 3722(3): 396-400. [連結]

Teratoglaea Sugi, 1958 is a peculiar noctuid genus and has long been considered to contain only one rare species, pacifica Sugi, 1958, ranging through the Manchurian-Pacific area of the north-eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, N. E. China, South of Russian Far East)(Sugi 1958; 1982; Kononenko et al. 1998; Chen, 1999; Kononenko 2005; Eda and Shikata 2011) and subtropical alpine Taiwan (Hreblay and Ronkay 1997). The peculiar large scale tufts on the metathorax and incised forewing costal margin at 3/4 of the length from the base have defined its unique generic status (Sugi 1958). According to the biology and genital structures (i.e. the late autumnal appearance of adults, overwintering then flying again in spring) and the armature of vesica with one long cornutus situated on the apical part of the vesica, Fibiger and Hacker (2007) placed this genus into Xylenini, Xyleninae (currently Noctuinae sensu Zahiri et al. 2013) and embedded this genus in subtribe Xylenina; however the absence of the digitus is discordant with most of the other included genera. When examining the genital structures of both sexes of Teratoglaea specimens from Japan (type locality of T. pacifica) and Alpine Taiwan, the two geographically separated populations represent two distinct morphological types. Therefore, T. hohuanshanensis sp. nov. has been described in the present study. According to the male genitalia, the tapering valval apex of T. hohuanshanensis, compared with anti-trapezoidal valval apex of T. pacifica, provides an argument to reassess the systematic placement of Teratoglaea in subtribe Xylenina of Xylenini (Fibiger and Hacker 2007). The similar valval structure also is present in some species of the Agrochola-Conistra generic complex sensu Ronkay et al. (2001), especially genus Conistra Hübner, 1821. This generic complex was also placed into Xylenina by Fibiger and Hacker (2007). The third segment of labial palpi is long in Agrochola and Conistra but short in Teratoglaea. However, this character can be variable in different species within the same genus of Xylenini. For instance, in Hyalobole Warren, 1911, the taxa of two species groups (i.e. H. phaeosoma group and H. changae group) can be distinguished by the length and colour of the third segment of palpi (Hreblay and Ronkay 1998). The female genitalia of Teratoglaea and Conistra share similar structures as both ostium bursae and appendix bursae are heavily sclerotized. Although the absence of the digitus in Conistra is not concordant with the diagnosis of subtribe Xylenina in Fibiger and Hacker (2007), its larval narrow tubular spinneret is regarded as a subtribal autapomorphic character in Fibiger and Hacker’s study. Further molecular study may help clarify the phylogenetic relationships among these genera. 

曲翼夜蛾屬 (Teratoglaea)為一外型較特別的夜蛾類群,具有前翅前緣彎曲以及胸部背方具有濃密毛束等特徵,長久被認為是一單種屬,即僅包含分布於古北區東北部的太平洋曲翼夜蛾(T. pacifica Sugi, 1958)。Hreblay and Ronkay (1997)根據一隻採集於台灣高山帶的未解剖雌蟲將此種之分佈延伸至台灣。此文章經比對太平洋曲翼夜蛾模式產地(日本)以及台灣產之雌雄標本生殖器,確認台灣族群為獨立種,描述為 T. hohuanshanensis Wu, 2013,並討論此屬與其他夜蛾亞科木夜蛾族類群之親緣關係。

[書介] 西拉雅蝴蝶誌

[書名] 西拉雅蝴蝶誌 (博客來訂購連結)
[著者] 詹家龍
[出版] 交通部觀光局西拉雅國家風景區管理處    
[頁數] 399 頁
[出版年月] 民國101年06月    
[ISBN] 9789860329117    
[摘要] 本書內容主要介紹西拉雅國家風景區蝴蝶生態、研究及圖鑑。成立於2005年11月的西拉雅國家風景區是國內第13座國家風景區。為了解轄區內蝴蝶月間的豐度與發生頻度,並做為西拉雅國家風景區發展生態旅遊之依據,特於2011年委託台灣紫斑蝶生態保育協會進行「西拉雅國家風景區蝴蝶資源調查、應用及斑蝶標放案」。針對轄區內的大棟山步道、鹿寮水庫及崁頭山、紅葉公園及南化生態遊憩區、社子農林場及新化林場、曾文水庫及梅嶺等5大區域共9個樣點進行蝴蝶資源調查工作。經過本計畫一整年的持續調查及重新匯整過去文獻後,總計在西拉雅地區被記錄過的蝴蝶共有238種(弄蝶科36種、鳳蝶科26種、粉蝶科25種、灰蝶科55種、蛺蝶科96種)。扣除迷蝶、應已滅絕種、區域滅絕種及疑問種,本計畫仍有30種未調查到蝶種,有待後人進行更詳細調查確認其現況。

[書介] 我最近遇到好久不見的詹家龍大大,他就送了我這本書。我剛拿到時還覺得,咦,這該不會和那種「各縣市蝴蝶圖鑑」差不多吧?(種類少、照片普通、文字說明可有可無、看完以後沒感覺)。然後我就在高鐵上翻啊翻啊,覺得字好多喔,會不會當成論文在寫啊?居然把過往相關報告都review過,也把各步道的蝶類資源寫得很清楚。

然後往下翻到各物種的解說,我覺得寫得很認真啊~ 認真在那?有些物種曾經在過去,台南的植被還沒有被破壞的時候出現過,但是在現在可能已經沒了,絕種了~ 那記錄那裏來?當然就是過去的採集記錄。那當年在台南採集過的學者有誰呢?就是Alfred. E. Wileman(以關仔嶺為主),還有一些日籍採集者。Wileman的標本都存在倫敦的自然史博物館中,而日本人的蝶類標本則存放在農試所中。詹家龍先生自大學時期起就經常到農試所檢查蝶類標本,也因此能累積許多的資訊,用以佐證許多蝴蝶曾經在台南地區飛舞的身影。