文獻來源：Wu, S. and W. C. Chang. 2013. Review of the Parasa undulata (Cai, 1983) species group with the first conifer-feeding larva for Limacodidae and descriptions of two new species from China and Taiwan (Lepidoptera, Limacodidae). Zookeys 345: 29-46. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.345.6179 [2013/10/23] [連結]
Although the caterpillars are well-known for the stings and magnificent coloration, the systematics of Limacodidae is historically neglected and chaotic due to the difficulty in matching the larval with adult stages as well as the very conservative and convergent adult morphology. One of the biggest taxonomic problems surrounds a collective group from Southeastern Asia, termed the “green limacodid moths”, which harbours at least 90 species placed in the genus Parasa Walker, 1859 and 14 “subunits”. The P. undulata group was previously composed of 3 species from China and Taiwan, and characterized only by wing pattern. This species group is extensively studied herein with two new species described, i.e. P. viridiflamma sp. n. (Taiwan) and P. minwangi sp. n. (S. China), and discovery of female genitalia of three species, presenting new phylogenetic insights in this potentially paraphyletic genus. In addition, one limacodid larva was found to be feeding exclusively on Picea (Pinaceae) in Taiwan. Its identity, Parasa pygmy Solovyev, 2010 in P. undulata group, is confirmed through matching its COI sequence to the adult. This discovery is also biologically significant because the previous known host breadth of Parasa was of polyphagy on various angiosperm plant families. This case, therefore, represents the first record of conifer-feeding behavior in this family as well as the first of specialized herbivory in the genus. Meanwhile, the background match between Picea leaves and larval coloration is shared with other Picea-feeding insects. This phenomenon is worth of further investigation in the aspect of convergent evolution of crypsis associated with a particular plant.
過去刺蛾科幼蟲多被記錄為廣食性的取食被子植物類群。本文章首次記載了刺蛾科幼蟲 (矮綠刺蛾 Parasa pygmy)專食裸子植物(台灣雲杉)的行為與特別的幼蟲體色斑紋，並同時描述兩新種，即台灣產焰綠刺蛾 (P. viridiflamma)與中國南部產王氏綠刺蛾 (P. minwangi)。此幼蟲與兩新種皆歸屬於波帶綠刺蛾 (Parasa undulata)種群，此種群目前僅知分布於中國大陸與台灣。藉由幼蟲形態與雌蟲生殖器結構的特徵討論，本文章亦評估了此種群與可能為駢系群的同屬綠刺蛾類群的親緣關係。