文獻來源：Sihvonen, P., M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, G. Brehm, A. Hausmann, H. S. Staude. 2011. Comprehensive Molecular Sampling Yields a Robust Phylogeny for Geometrid Moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). PLoS ONE 6(6): e20356. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020356 [全文]
此篇文章選取全球具代表性尺蛾分類群，藉由八段基因來重建親緣關係。結果顯示 (1) 尺蛾科確為單系群，其姊妹枝系為偽燕蛾科 (Sematuridae)+鳳蛾顆 (Epicopeiidae)，然而此結果與Mutanen (2010)以及Reiger et. al (2009)有出入；(2) 尺蛾科內部的分子親緣關係與2007年Yamamoto與Sota的研究中主要亞科的關係所得結果相同，姬尺蛾亞科與波(花)尺蛾亞科枝系為其他亞科之姊妹群，然而幾個物種數少的亞科關係則尚待釐清；(3) 星尺蛾與細尺蛾兩亞科在此篇文章形成一多系群；(4) 枝尺蛾亞科雖為單系群然而樹型支持度低，且納入了過去被視為獨立亞科之“空點尺蛾亞科 (Orthostixinae)”與Alsophilinae亞科之取樣物種；(4) 過去所劃定的族級族多非單系群。
Background: The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers), with approximately 23 000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated.
Methodology/Principal Findings: We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae.
Conclusions/Significance: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.