文獻來源: Yago M, Yokochi T, Kondon M, Braby MF, Yahya B, Peggie D, Wang M, William M, Morita S, Ueshima R. 2012. Revision of the Euthalia phemius complex (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on morphology and molecular analyses. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 164(1): 304-327.
Adults of the Euthalia phemius complex, which is composed of three South-East Asian nymphalid species, Euthalia phemius, Euthalia ipona, and Euthalia euphemia, were genetically analysed by examining mitochondrial and nuclear genes. The E. phemius complex was also examined morphologically, with particular emphasis on wing markings and male genitalia. No significant differences amongst the three species in the complex were detected with respect to either genetic distance or genital morphology. We therefore conclude that the three currently recognized Euthalia species belong to a single species. Accordingly, E. ipona is synonymized with E. phemius. Euthalia euphemia is treated as a subspecies of E. phemius. Type specimens of all taxa and a synonymic list for the E. phemius complex are also given. In addition, we briefly discuss the evolution and biogeography of the species complex.